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Which of the following is NOT a remedy for faulty consensus seeking? (p.336) Making sure all available evidence is considered Making sure members’ views are independent from each other Making sure people state their private opinion in public votes Making sure one powerful leader structures the discussion When can a group's consensus NOT be easily altered by minority viewpoints? (pp.338–345) When the minority members are being perceived as different from the majority When the minority offer an alternative consensus When the minority remain consistent in their views When the minority promote systematic processing Which of the following statements is correct? I. Consensus is more likely to be accurate when making group members systematic processors as individuals than as a group. II. Minority views can change majority attitudes more in a direct than in an indirect way. (pp.338–339) I and II are both false I is true; II is false I is false; II is true I and II are both true The more cohesive a group is: (p.335) The more agreement is expected The less influence group norms will have, because group members feel more free to deviate from the norms The more varied the opinions The less consensus is expected, because it is less threatening to disagree on certain matters" Which of the following statements is correct? I. When a decision requires unanimity, minority influence is weakened and the quality of decisions is reduced more than when a decision needs to be supported by the majority. II. Minority views influence others by different processes from majority views. (pp.344–347) I is false; II is true I and II are both true I and II are both false I is true; II is false
Psychology | General Psychology | Posted: 3 days ago
Paper type: Short Answer | Course name: psychology
$10
Which of the following statements is correct? I. Group polarization occurs only when people are processing information superficially. II. Information not everybody knows about is discussed more than information given to all people involved in the discussion. (p.323, p.325, p.326) I is true; II is false I and II are both true I and II are both false I is false; II is true A consensus is most likely to be valid when: (pp.330–331) People adopt a consensus without carefully considering the relevant information themselves People are contaminated by shared biases People publicly conform to norms People reach the same conclusion independently Which of the following statements is correct? I. People are less influenced by views from separate individuals than views from a group. II. People trust in-group members’ decisions more than decisions reached by out-group members. (pp.320–321) I is false; II is true I is true; II is false I and II are both false I and II are both true Groupthink results from an excessive emphasis on: (p.334) Reality testing Reaching consensus Listening to the minority opinions The uniqueness of the individual When groupthink leads to the illusion of unanimity, every group member has the impression that _________ has led the other group members to accept the group's opinion. (p.344) Factual information Self-censorship Mind guarding Private conformity
Psychology | General Psychology | Posted: 3 days ago
Paper type: Short Answer | Course name: psychology
$10
That people tend to overestimate the extent to which others agree with their views of the world is a phenomenon called: (p.315) Fundamental attribution error Correspondence bias Base-rate fallacy False consensus effect Which of the following statements is true? I: Persuasive messages from in-group members that are weak are more likely to be rejected than messages that are strong. II: People are more influenced by weak persuasive messages from out-group than from in-group members. (p.321) I is false; II is true I is true; II is false I and II are both false I and II are both true Group polarization occurs when: (p.322) Individuals make riskier decisions when they are in a group than when they are alone The group's initial opinions are intensified during interaction Opposite opinions in a group lead to the formation of two or more subgroups The minority's opinion is rejected Which of the following is NOT a factor that increases conformity to group norms? (p.322) High identification with the group Presence of group members Unambiguous situations Frequent and close group interaction When the group’s initial average position becomes more extreme following group interaction, this is termed: (p.324) Groupthink False consensus Polarization Public conformity
Psychology | General Psychology | Posted: 3 days ago
Paper type: Short Answer | Course name: psychology
$10
What can be concluded from Sherif's (1936) study on the autokinetic effect? (p.309) Social norms influence decisions only when the task is ambiguous Individuals' judgments are only influenced by the social norm when they are in a group Social norms can influence perception The judgments of group members change after discussion in the direction of the most extreme judgment in the group Which statement best describes the development of a social norm? (p.309) Interaction that results in the compliance with behavioral rules of powerful group members Interaction in which the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of group members become similar Agreement on the best solution of a judgment task, but only when the task is ambiguous The integration of cognitive and affective responses on a task In Asch's line judgment task: (p.311) The subjects' answers tended to be the same as the confederates', even when the answer was obviously wrong Subjects overtly exerted pressure on each other to give the correct answer Some subjects showed only "public conformity" The experimenter stressed the importance of consensus The term used for the convergence of individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors towards a group norm is: (p.312) Social norm False consensus effect Group polarization Conformity Conforming to group norms satisfies our need for mastery because: (pp.315–316) People are motivated to make accurate decisions People experience a proud sense of belonging People demonstrate their commitment and connections to other group members People believe that consensus tells something about reality
Psychology | General Psychology | Posted: 3 days ago
Paper type: Short Answer | Course name: psychology
$10
Which type of processing is used when attitudes deliberately trigger consistent behaviors? (p.294) Systematic processing Superficial processing Direct processing Deliberate processing How do attitudes affect behavior if careful consideration is not possible, or when the choices are not important? (pp.294–295) Deliberately Directly Systematically Superficially One way to make attitudes more accessible is to remind people to what extent they measure up to their inner convictions. This is an example of making attitudes accessible: (p.297) Automatically Through self-awareness Deliberately Habitually What is the applicability of the attitude-behavior link in clinical settings? (p.298) It can be used to teach people how to deliberately form intentions for their planned behavior It can be used to reduce people’s use of alcohol to deal with cognitive dissonance It can be used to deal with bad and good habits It can be used to teach people to link their good attitudes with environmental cues so that the desired behavior can be triggered automatically What type of information do implicit attitudes reflect? (p.300) Conscious thoughts Automatic aspects of evaluations Considered reactions to attitude objects Spontaneous behaviors
Psychology | General Psychology | Posted: 3 days ago
Paper type: Short Answer | Course name: psychology
$10
Post-decisional regret is another term for: (p.283) Tensions between two alternatives Cognitive dissonance Decisional dissonance Self-perception processes What is an example of a 'wrong' alternative way to reduce cognitive dissonance? (p.286) Trivializing the attitude-discrepant behavior Minimizing personal responsibility Reaffirming one’s positive sense of self worth and integrity Alcohol or drug use What types of attitudes are more likely to be accessed directly? (p.286) Specific attitudes General attitudes Well established or important attitudes Trivial attitudes Which theory argues that attitudes and social norms are an important part of intentions, which then produce behavior? (p.293) Cognitive dissonance theory The effort-justification effect Theory of reasoned action Self-perception processes Which factor can influence intentions and plans when people are monitoring their behavior against their intentions? (p.294) Plans Intentions Emotions Social norms
Psychology | General Psychology | Posted: 3 days ago
Paper type: Short Answer | Course name: psychology
$10
Which of the following techniques would work well to fulfill the first condition of the foot-in-the-door-technique to influence attitudes? (pp.274–275) • Having people exert a lot of effort into the first request • Making the first request very large • Making salient the fact that their actions are internally driven • Giving people a small external reward for going along with the first request When are actions most likely to lead people to adopt consistent attitudes? (p.276) • When people think superficially • When people think systematically • When attitudes are unimportant • When attitudes are well established and important What is the term used for the experience of uncomfortable tension between important attitudes and actions? (p.277) • Self perception • Dissonance • Attitude-action discrepancy • Dissonance reduction Which of the following steps is necessary for actions to produce dissonance and for that dissonance to produce attitude change? (p.277) • The individual believes her behavior was due to external causes • The individual must believe that his behavior is inconsistent with his attitude • The individual must agree to a primary, small request • People should infer their attitudes from their behavior The idea that the more effort, time, or pain you put into something, the more you value it, and the more you will change your attitude toward it, is explained by which theory? (p.283) • Cognitive dissonance • Self-perception theory • The-foot-in-the-door technique • The effort-justification effect
Psychology | General Psychology | Posted: 3 days ago
Paper type: Short Answer | Course name: psychology
$10
Why are behaviors and attitudes not always consistent? (p.270) Because social influence techniques can get us to act in ways that are not consistent with our attitudes or values Because they aren’t similar during superficial processing Attitudes are only one of several important factors that can affect behavior Because we don’t always have the motivation to process our actions and attitudes What is an important example of another factor that can influence how we behave? (p.270) Rules and regulations Social norms Behavior Motivational processes Which theory can be used to explain why someone who is nodding his head will agree with a statement more than someone shaking his head? (p.273) Cognitive dissonance theory Self-perception theory The foot-in-the-door theory None; it is simply an example of how behavior can often affect attitudes What professional field can take advantage of the powers of social influence explained in the self-perception theory? (p.273) Advertising and sales Managers or other leaders of any company Video game designers Any employee can use the theory to influence co-workers Imagine you receive an email about how you would feel, hypothetically, about contributing time or money to the local orphanage by going to a website. You do so, and a week later you receive an email asking you to actually go down to the orphanage and work with the children for 2 hours. This would be an example of: (p.274) Cognitive dissonance The foot-in-the-door technique Self-perception processes Attitudes influencing actions
Psychology | General Psychology | Posted: 3 days ago
Paper type: Short Answer | Course name: psychology
$10
Which of the following statements is correct? I. If it is important to make the right decision, we will process systematically. II. If we are motivated to connectedness, we will express opinions similar to those of our interaction partners. (pp.249–250) I and II are both true I and II are both false I is true; II is false I is false; II is true When is systematic processing most likely? (pp.252–253) When we are able to concentrate on the message and count the number of arguments in the message When we have the ability to process and are able to concentrate on the message When strong arguments are used and we are able to concentrate on them When we are highly motivated and there is some noise around us Who is the most likely to process a message about the generally accepted view that spending a lot of money is not good for you? (pp.254–255) High self-monitors with a low need for cognition, and a prevention focus Low self-monitors with a high need for cognition, and a promotion focus High self-monitors with a high need for cognition, and a prevention focus Low self-monitors with a low need for cognition, and a prevention focus" What is true about the influence of positive emotions on the way we process information? (p.256) When we feel good, we are motivated to keep this feeling and we are less eager to process information that might interfere with it When we feel good because of a certain task, we are motivated to keep this feeling and we are less eager to process information about the task When we feel good, we do not think about the cause of this feeling, so we have all our cognitive capacity left for other things When we feel good, our attitudes are less likely to reflect associations based on heuristic cues" Which message is the most persuasive? (p.257) A message that incorporates an extreme level of fear, because this makes people think about the threatening situation A message that incorporates a mediate level of fear and opens the ways to eliminate the anxiety A message that incorporates a mediate level of fear and shows beautiful people A message that incorporates a mediate level of fear and reassuring instructions on how to eliminate the anxiety Anne reads an article in the newspaper that supports her opinion about government policies, but isn’t exactly her attitude. Anne concludes that the newspaper totally agrees with her. This is an example of: (p.259) Subliminal persuasion Contrast Assimilation Boomerang effect What is true about the bias we have to protect our attitudes? (p.259) People have a better memory for contra-attitudinal arguments People think less thoroughly about contra-attitudinal arguments because they reject them immediately People think more thoroughly about contra-attitudinal arguments in order to generate counterarguments to them People have a better memory for attitude-consistent arguments Resisting a persuasive attempt can make our attitude even stronger. This is because: (p.261) We accept consistent information and criticize inconsistent information We understand consistent information better Resisting a persuasive attempt makes us feel more self-confident All the answers are correct Subliminal self-help tapes can be successful because: (p.263) People use them while they are asleep People actually believe in their effectiveness People are very susceptible to information they hear People who buy these tapes really want to change What is NOT true about subliminal influence? (pp.263–264) It doesn’t work for all stimuli Its influence can be largely modified by conscious processing Subliminal self-help tapes are an effective way to change people It is hard to expose people to subliminal influences
Psychology | General Psychology | Posted: 3 days ago
Paper type: Short Answer | Course name: psychology
$20
Which attitude is the true attitude? (p.232) The true attitude is the explicit attitude because it reflects what people try to achieve Neither implicit nor explicit attitude is the true attitude The true attitude is the implicit attitude because it reflects what people really think The true attitude is the sum of the explicit and implicit attitude because in all situations this sum predicts behavior the best Which statement is correct? I: The utilitarian function of attitudes helps us to stay connected to others. II: We (can) have different attitudes about one attitude object. (p.232) I is false; II is true I and II are both true I is true; II is false I and II are both false When you don’t smoke because smoking can cause lung cancer, your attitude is based on: (p.234) Cognitive information Affective information Behavioral information Elementary information What is NOT a consequence of a frequent occurrence of a joint activation of an object and its evaluation? (pp.237–238) The attitude becomes a shorthand substitute for all the information about the object The attitude becomes more automatic The attitude becomes more important The attitude becomes more persistent to change Which of the following is NOT a heuristic used in superficial processing? (pp.239–245) Convincing arguments against a product The expert has the knowledge I like this person so he will be right I feel good, apparently I like this sport" According to the "you get what you pay for" heuristic: (p.245) The quality of a product reflects its price People assimilate their attitude to yours when you pay for it People pay you to assimilate your attitude to theirs The price of a product reflects its quality One TV commercial for a deodorant uses a lot of women running in bikinis. This is a technique intended to promote: (pp.245–246) Systematic processing, because it increases the ability to process Systematic processing, because it is attention grabbing Superficial processing, because it distracts attention Neither systematic nor superficial processing, because women in bikinis are irrelevant for some people but very relevant for other people" The central route of persuasion consists of (in the right order): (pp.246–248) Acceptance; reaction; attention; comprehension Attention; comprehension; reaction; acceptance Reaction; comprehension; acceptance; attention Attention; reaction; acceptance; comprehension Which statement is correct? I: People’s reactions to the content of a message can be more important than the content itself. II: Elaboration is always a cognitive process. (p.248) I and II are both true I is false; II is true I is true; II is false I and II are both false What do we mean by the "boomerang effect"? (p.248) When communicators attempt to influence us with really bad arguments, we may respond by moving in the opposite direction When communicators attempt to influence us with central arguments, we may respond by withdrawing into our own thoughts When communicators attempt to influence us with a lot of arguments, we may respond by not paying attention anymore When communicators attempt to influence us with peripheral arguments, we may respond by using central arguments"
Psychology | General Psychology | Posted: 3 days ago
Paper type: Short Answer | Course name: psychology
$20


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